(PDF) Invention and Innovation in African Iron-smelting
to the UNESCO volumes on African iron metallurgy The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in. Africa. New Light on its Antiquity: West and Central. Africa.P a r i s:U N E S C O. Carlson, B. (ed.), 2005.
West African History Books Cultures of West Africa
Historians, archaeologists, ethnologists, engineers and other researchers come together to trace the origins of iron and steel metallurgy in Africa, particularly in West Africa proving that sub-Saharan Africa did not, in fact, receive the knowledge of iron forging from other cultures as previously thought, but invented and developed it independently as far back as the third millennium BC.
[PDF] The origins of iron metallurgy in Africa : new light
The work of the specialists archaeologists, historians, ethnologists, sociologists and metallographical engineers presented in this book bears witness to the energy of the research now being carried on in relation to African iron and steel metallurgy. Not only does it give a clearer picture of the origins and development of metallurgy throughout the continent, it also throws light on
African Iron Age - 1,000 Years of African Kingdoms
Jan 24, 2020· African Iron Age people used a bloomery process to smelt iron. They built a cylindrical clay furnace and used charcoal and a hand-operated bellows to reach the level of heating for smelting. Bloomery is a batch process, in which the air blast must be stopped periodically to remove the solid mass or masses of metal, called blooms.
The beginnings of iron metallurgy in west africa
Apr 18, 2017· In The origins of iron metallurgy in Africa: new light on its antiquity: West and Central Africa. Paris: UNESCO, 2004. Recommended Explore history and biography books with Scribd. Scribd - Free 30 day trial. Scientific Revolution in Europe 1400-1727 Edice Pachikerl. U.S Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean
1. Sahara Trade and Empire Introduction Su2014
Jul 30, 2014· The origins of iron metallurgy in Africa: new light on its antiquity, West and Central Africa. Unesco, 2004. 42. Diffusion Hypotheses Meroe hypothesis: iron metallurgy spread from around Meroe, Nubia in the Nile Valley to the rest of the continent Carthaginian Origins: The Phoenicians traded extensively with the Berbers, who in turn bartered
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa (January 2004
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa New Light on Its Antiquity--West and Central Africa (Memory of Peoples) This edition was published in January 2004 by UNESCO. The Physical Object Format Hardcover Number of pages 240 ID Numbers Open Library OL9124877M ISBN 10 9231038079 ISBN 13 9789231038075 Goodreads
Ancient Metallurgy - University of California, San Diego
Iron appeared in Africa by 600 BC, probably from Southwest Asia via Egypt, Nubia, and the Sahel corridor running south of the Sahara, and substantial iron working began in what is today Nigeria by the 300s. In most parts of the world, the use of iron largely displaced the prior use of bronze, and hence the "Iron Age" succeeded the "Bronze Age."
Iron and Manganese Ore Deposits: Mineralogy - UNESCO
UNESCO EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS GEOLOGY Vol. IV Iron and Manganese Ore Deposits: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Economic Geology - Jens Gutzmer and Nicolas J. Beukes ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) 1. Introduction Iron, in the form of cast iron and steel, is arguably the backbone of all industrial
(PDF) The Origins of Metallurgy in Prehistoric Southeast
On the origins of metallurgy in prehistoric Southeast Asia: the view from Thailand Vincent C. Pigott and Roberto Ciarla ABSTRACT Research over the last 30 years has markedly improved our understanding of metallurgical developments in prehistoric Thailand.
astenb: African origin of metallurgy pushed back to
Jul 26, 2019· There is an "upcoming publication" in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia dealing with the origins of metallurgy on the African continent, particularly the older dates we have below the Sahara. The idea of an independent discovery of metallurgy in Africa even in the face of pretty old evidence has always been pretty contentious.
On the origins of extractive metallurgy: new evidence from
Nov 01, 2010· However, due to the lack of direct evidence of actual smelting from any of the suggested regions of invention, the origins of extractive metallurgy remain hotly contested (Roberts et al., 2009, Thornton et al., 2010). Importantly, in the studies of ancient metallurgy, metal artefacts have received the lions share of the scholarly attention.
UNESCO Natural Sciences Portal
Memory of Peoples series/UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 92-3-103807-9, 240 pp. Until recently, Sub-Saharan Africa was regarded as a mere recipient of iron technology, thought to have come from the Middle East. Sub-Saharan Africa actually invented and developed its own iron metallurgy as far back as the third millennium BC.
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa: New Light on Its
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa: New Light on Its Antiquity, West and Central Africa. Hamady Bocoum. UNESCO, UNESCO's study of iron metallurgy in Africa is intended to draw attention to the contribution that African metallurgists--smelters and blacksmiths--have made to the technical heritage of humanity. From inside the book .
Iron Working and the Iron Age in Africa - African Studies
Oct 25, 2012· Introduction. Iron technology first appears in the African continent in the 1st millennium BCE, and the term Iron Age is generally used, certainly south of the Sahara, to describe iron-using communities in Africa until the modern historical era.It thus covers a very long period of time and is used to describe a great variety of different societies, from simple village-based farmers and nomadic
African Iron Age - 1,000 Years of African Kingdoms
Jan 24, 2020· African Iron Age people used a bloomery process to smelt iron. They built a cylindrical clay furnace and used charcoal and a hand-operated bellows to reach the level of heating for smelting. Bloomery is a batch process, in which the air blast
Indigenous African Metallurgy: Nature and Culture
Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, iron is the first metal to appear in the archaeological record. Iron smelting furnaces have been radiocarbon dated to the interval 500-1000 cal BC in Nigeria (81, 99), Niger (55, 84), Tanzania (93), and Rwanda (109). These dates have fueled the long-running debate about the origins of ironworking in Africa.
Seeking Africas First Iron Men
origin of ironmaking in Africa. According to tradi-tional thinking, iron metallurgy diffused slowly from one society to the next in the Old World, reaching northern Africa by 750 B.C.E. but not crossing the barrier of the Sahara Desert until 500 B.C.E. or later. Now controversial findings from a French team working at the site of Ôboui in the
Amazon: The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa: New
The attention focused by UNESCO on the study of iron metallurgy in Africa is intended inter alia to rescue from oblivion the contribution made by African metallurgists smelters and blacksmiths to the technical heritage of humankind.
(PDF) Dynamics of metal working Traditions in West Africa
In Bocoum, H. (ed.), The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa: New light on its Antiquity -- West and Central Africa. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 33-42. Okafor, E. E. (2004). Twenty-five Centuries of
The Innovation and Adoption of Iron in the Ancient Near
Feb 21, 2019· This review synthesizes field research, textual analysis, and archaeometric data to evaluate different explanations for the spread of iron in the ancient Near East. Current evidence supports an Anatolian origin for extractive iron metallurgy on a limited scale sometime in the early 2nd millennium BC. However, the first major expansion of iron, both in Anatolia and across the wider Near
The Age of Iron in West Africa Essay The Metropolitan
Iron smelting and forging technologies may have existed in West Africa among the Nok culture of Nigeria as early as the sixth century B.C. In the period from 1400 to 1600, iron technology appears to have been one of a series of fundamental social assets that facilitated the growth of significant centralized kingdoms in the western Sudan and along the Guinea coast of West Africa.
Metallurgy in Africa SpringerLink
Some preindustrial societies made cast iron, a molten form of iron, but there is little evidence for this technology in Africa. Copper and copper alloys, on the other hand, were often made by reducing ore into molten metal and pouring it into molds, or by hammer forging solid copper.
South Africa - The Iron Age Britannica
South Africa - South Africa - The Iron Age: Because the first farmers had knowledge of ironworking, their archaeological sites are characterized as Iron Age (c. 200 ce). New groups of people arriving in South Africa at that time had strong connections to East Africa. They were directly ancestral to the Bantu-speaking peoples who form the majority of South Africas population today.
HISTORY OF METALLURGY
The age of iron: from 1500 BC: The next great development in metallurgy involves a metal which is the most abundant in the earth's surface but which is much more difficult to work than copper or tin. It is iron, with a melting point too high for primitive furnaces to extract it in pure form from its ore.
Ancient ferrous metallurgy sites of Burkina Faso African
Nov 13, 2019· The ancient ferrous metallurgy sites bear exceptional testimony to a unique tradition of iron ore smelting, passing on to todays Burkina Faso communities a rich technical and cultural heritage. Douroula illustrates this first phase of iron production development in Africa, and demonstrates that the iron production technology was already
5th SGA-SEG-UNESCO-IUGS Short Course on African
all over Africa are educated in the field of exploration, extraction and metallurgy to insure high qualification for the African mining and metallurgical industries. The aim of the 5th Short Course on African Metallogeny is to train geoscientists and engineers on metallogeny, including the metallurgy of Mn and U, for the purpose of
Metals in society: Iron production and its position in
Feb 01, 2007· Prendergast, M. D. (1974) Research into the Ferrous Metallurgy of Rhodesian Iron Age Societies, Journal of South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 74: 254-264. Google Scholar ISI Pwiti, G. ( 1991 ) Trade and Economies in Southern Africa: The Archaeological Evidence ,
Did They or Didn't They Invent It? Iron in Sub-Saharan Africa
Origins of Iron Metallurgy: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the Archaeology of Africa and the Mediterranean Basin Held at the Museum of Natural History in Geneva, 4-7 June, 1999." UNESCO published an English translation of
Why African Metallurgy Is Important History Essay
The origins of African iron metallurgy have always been an issue that is often a dispute amongst archaeologists. It was known that the vast scale of the African continents as well as the barriers in the politics and cultures had aroused difficulties in the findings of a
Siberian Nomads Practiced High Tech Iron - Ancient Origins
Sep 12, 2019· The bloomery was the earliest form of smelter capable of smelting iron. A bloomery's product is a porous mass of iron and slag called a bloom. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 ) Capacity of Kosh-Agach Furnace . The average volume of Kosh-Agach-type furnaces is one cubic meter, the rectangular two-meters-by-one-meter (6.56 x 3.28 feet) above ground part is made
Precolonial Metallurgy and Mining across Africa Oxford
In North Africa, metallurgy was introduced by Phoenicians around 800 bce. 4 However, West, central, and East Africa present a picture that contrasts with that of Egypt and North Africa. 5 Here, the limited data available suggest that metallurgy might have begun with copper and iron around or before 800 bce.
Africa's Contributions to World Civilization
Africa has made many outstanding contributions to world civilization, of which the following are a few selected examples: Iron Technology On the assumption that there had been a single centre (the Middle East) from which iron metallurgy had spread, most historians thought that ironworking had been introduced into Africa from western Asia, first into ancient Egypt and then into
Ancient ferrous metallurgy sites - World Heritage Site
The Ancient Iron Metallurgy Sites represent an early phase of iron production in Africa. The 5 locations, spread out over Burkina Fasos territory, comprise iron ore smelting furnaces, slag heaps and other traces of mining. The development of this technology has lead to
The Origins Of The Akan-Speaking People Of Ghana
Apr 03, 2020· They were Artisans who specialized in metallurgy and texture production. The Gya group. The Oyoko-Clan Royals from this group, were the Rulers of the Gyeadom state. Their Totem was the Falcon. They used fire to smelter iron, copper. The Djado plateau people, carved wood and stones.
General History of Africa - UNESCO
In 1964, UNESCO launched the elaboration of the General History of Africa (GHA) with a view to remedy the general ignorance on Africas history. The challenge consisted of reconstructing Africas history, freeing it from racial prejudices ensuing from slave trade and colonization, and promoting an African perspective.
African Iron Age Architecture & Tools - Humanities Class
The Iron Age was a formative time for Africa. In this lesson, we'll discuss the impact of the Iron Age on African societies and see how this influenced their architecture and tools.
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa - UNESCO
The Origins of Iron Metallurgy in Africa The iron industry is a benchmark of civilization and is underpinned by a whole body of tried and tested concepts. Until recently sub-Saharan Africa was regarded as a mere recipient of this technology which was supposed to have come from the Middle East by way of North Africa and the Valley of the Nile.
Iron metallurgy in Africa - Wikipedia
The topic of early iron-metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa encompasses both studies of the technology and archaeology of indigenous iron-production.. Some evidence from historical linguistics suggests that the Nok culture of Nigeria may have practiced iron smelting from as early as 1000 BC; archaeological evidence dates this not later than 550 BC. Evidence also exists for earlier iron metallurgy
Origins of African Metallurgies Oxford Research
Evidence of copper and iron metallurgies is documented in the continent, in West, Central, and East Africa. Early copper metallurgies were recorded in the Akjoujt region of
Did They or Didn't They Invent It? Iron in Sub-Saharan Africa
That issue is titled The Origins of Iron Metallurgy: Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on the Archaeology of Africa and the Mediterranean Basin Held at the Museum of Natural History in Geneva, 4-7 June, 1999.